Critique of the N-Machine Constructed by Trombly & Kahn
by Bruce E. DePalma (11 October 1985)
Recently the International Patent Application of Trombly and Kahn (assigned to Acme Energy Co. of San Rafael, CA) has become public property under the Patent Cooperation treaty and can be obtained from the International Bureau of the World Intellectual Property Organization. A copy of this patent application is attached. The difference between the international patents and the US patent system is that in the US the material of the patent is secret until the patent is granted, while overseas the application itself is the basis of the patent, which stands until challenged by a third party.
Thus although Adam Trombly, the senior designer of the machine, has received two written gag orders from the Pentagon Department of Defense, forbidding him to reveal details of the machine --- upon threat of 10 years imprisonment for violating security relating to homopolar generator design -- through the very nature of life itself by a totally automatic process, the attache document falls into the public domain.
The attached patent application and drawings represent the result of the expenditure of $290,000 in two phases. The DOD-imposed secrecy has prevented any recompense whatsoever from accruing to the men who performed this work. What is described is a machine, an electrical generator whose output exceeds the input by a factor of 4.92.
Summary of Machine Parameters:
Rotor o.d: 14.0 inches
Rotor Length: 9.25 inches
Internal Rotor Diameter: 6 inches
Shaft Diameter (at widest point): 2 inches
Speed: 7200 rpm
Field: 15,000 gauss @ 150 watts field input
Voltage Output: 2.9 volts C @ 15,000 amperes
Drive Motor (DC) input (no load): 1.8 - 1.9 hp (1340-1470 watts) windage & friction
Drive Motor input (loaded): 10.8 Kw, 14.5 hp
Machine Internal Resistance: 6-10 micro-ohms
Output Power: 43.7 Kw (maximum achieved 45.8 kw)
Power gain of Machine: 45.8 / 9.3 (drag due to current withdrawal) = 4.92
In the above figure the 150 watts consumed in exciting the magnet is a negligible factor.
The numbers in the above list of machine parameters which were not included in the patent application have been obtained in private communication with Adam Trombly. The US patent application was rejected twice on the grounds of impossibility that the machine could work, and then the authors were warned not to publish any information on the basis of violation of secret homopolar generator work being done concurrently in the DOD.
Trombly and Kahn are two of the brightest young physicists in America today. Their work is of the very highest quality and is reflected in the enclosed report. Technically what was done represents the first stages of the development of the N-machine as an article of commerce. Particularly two items are important.
Closure of the magnetic field path in the Trombly machine allows for high magnetic field strength to be obtained with little effort, i.e., the 150 watts of excitation. Strong magnetism in the N-machine rotor results in high voltage output but at the expense of increased drag. Extraction of current from a machine of this type wherein current is taken out through holes in the magnets (Be-Cu shaft in iron rotor), as well as flowing radially outward (to the edge of iron rotor), as well as flowing radially inward (to the edge of the disk liquid metal contact), through the outer flux return path causes a reverse motoring action which increases the drag of the machine. If the gap between the outer rotor annuli were increased the flux in the central core would decrease but also would the drag of the machine brought about by the anti-motoring action.
Experience as well as design philosophy will decide the proper balance between drag and power gain in a particular machine. In the earlier "Sunburst" machine drag was minimized by not closing the flux path and operating the machine in a totally non-magnetic (brass and wood) environment. Here the measured power gain was 28:1 at 10 kw output (1.5 v.d.c @ 6700 amperes). However, much more power was consumed in exciting the magnet of this machine, i.e., 4 kw vs. 150 watts for the Trombly machine.
A major factor is the construction of the liquid metal brush system, which makes possible the power potential of a low voltage, very high current machine.
The solution described by Trombly seems to have been simultaneously invented by him, DePalma, and the DOD. Without necessarily having to add specific detail, it should be obvious how to enlarge the structure to handle more current. The liquid metal could be circulated to provide additional cooling. Different metals could be used, i.e., mercury. I estimate that the Trombly machine should be able to produce 100,000 amperes without difficulty.
Conversion of the low voltage d.c. output to the standard 110 and 220 volt a.c./60 cps requires innovative engineering. The easiest way is to run a Faraday disk motor at the low voltage and drive a conventional electrical generator to produce whatever voltage and current required. Conversion could also be attempted by interrupting the low voltage high current with some sort of liquid metal commutator and transforming the voltage directly without a transformer. These ideas are treated by Tesla in his patents for the design of liquid metal commutators and interrupters. The voltage could be transformed electronically but at this time is beyond the state of the art of low voltage high current transistors at the present time.
A larger diameter machine could be built. Voltage goes as the square of the machine radius.
The low internal resistance, 6-10 micro-ohms, reported for the Trombly-Kahn machine speaks to the quality of the liquid metal sliding contacts obtained with the construction method described. Low internal resistance is crucial to obtaining high power output and avoiding internal heating.
The Trombly-Kahn machine represents what bright young minds can accomplish given the right circumstances and support. The attempted suppression of this work only point up the feeblemindedness of the gerontocracy that rules science in the USA.
Building a useful N-machine is a high-technology accomplishment. Intelligent designers and craftsmen can take this information and scale it to appropriate needs. The wish is to cause this technology to flourish on Earth.
Bruce DePalma - DePalma Institute
Subject: Re: Adam Trombly, on ZPE, the transformation of humanity
Date: Sep 20, 2006 3:30 PM
Yes, I've discussed Adam Trombly and his F-E device with some of my other colleagues. Sofar, he hasn't been bumped off for his F-E work. He merely went to prison for discussing his generator with ordinary people against the orders of the "high pooh-bah". When we were kids, we learned the expression, "Nice guys finish last". I guess that includes incarceration for doing the right thing for the public, as Trombly apparently did.
The Truth About ZP Technology -- A Wake-Up Call to the American People
An interview with Adam Trombly
Adam Trombly is one of the top scientists in the world in the development and creation of Zero Point Energy technology. Devices that he built are working today in other parts of the world. And yet, instead of using Zero Point Energy, Adam Trombly's own house in Maui is being fitted with a bank of expensive solar panels.
Why can't Trombly use his own expertise to fuel his own home? Trombly has spent most of his professional life under one gag order or another. But he decided, he told us, "that if I was going to give an interview for this particular publication, I wasn't going to pull any punches." If much of this seems overly negative, keep reading. Trombly wants to wake us up, and to shine a light upon things that have been kept dark. But his grounding is deeply spiritual. It's just that the Divine forces that seek to assist us cannot do so unless we call upon them. "Now, in this moment," he tells us, "we must come out and ask for help. When we can ask for help, we get it."
Adam Trombly's revelations will shock you to the depths. But it is his hope, and ours, that it will help you to awaken, or to assist you in your task of awakening others. Trombly's ultimate vision is the "redreaming of the American Dream."
Adams: How did you become interested in free energy?
Trombly: I was raised as a scientist and I have spoken the language of science all of my life. My mother was a blood specialist, my father was a biochemist, and my sister was at one time a biophysicist.
When my father had just gotten his Ph.D. in biochemistry from Purdue University -- I was a young child -- he was enlisted as a biochemist, by a fellow Purdue alumnus named Frank Olsen, into a U.S. Air Force/CIA joint project. He was stationed at the biological warfare laboratory in Fort Detrick, Maryland. This was in 1952 during the Korean Conflict. He had been a highly decorated U.S. Army Air Corp officer in World War II, but the government felt that he had a skill of strategic importance to the national security.
At Fort Detrick, he and Olsen, along with a couple of other scientists, were working on a very compartmentalized project. Since he died when I was in the eighth year of this body, I knew very, very little about what this project involved. On the seventh anniversary of his death (4/3/1967) I was in my mother's attic, putting out mousetraps, when I discovered a couple of boxes that contained journals my father had kept during his time at Detrick. You weren't supposed to keep journals, but he did.
One of the things he wrote about in his journals was his exposure to alien technology that totally defied what were considered, at that time and even still to this day, the laws of physics.
He wrote a letter to Dr. Quackenbush, who was on his dissertation board at Purdue, saying that what he had seen challenged even his "most vivid imagination." This was right after he got there.
After he had been there about a year, the notes he wrote got really interesting. He specifically described various technologies which he stated plainly were of "alien origin." He described not only flying disk-shaped craft and their related energy and propulsion systems, but Extraterrestrial Biological Entities. His work was actually concerned with them.
On November 19, 1953, my father (along with Dr. Frank Olson and a couple of other colleagues) was taken by Dr. Sidney Gottlieb to a summer camp near Baltimore. While there, he and his colleagues were involuntarily given large doses of LSD in their cocktails; doses on the order of 10,000 to 15,000 micrograms. Olsen knew about the experiment, and out of concern for my father told him, "Harvey you have been given a psychoactive drug and you are beginning to feel its effects. Don't worry."
Olsen had also taken a large dose of acid, and later freaked out because he said he had, "blown the experiment." It was supposed to be a double-blind experiment for all of the participants other than Olsen. He was supposed to keep silent.
Frank Olsen continued to feel unsettled, and was rushed by CIA personnel to New York for psychiatric examination. Something terrible happened instead. Frank was bludgeoned in the head and then thrown from his hotel room window. He was murdered. This, at least, was the conclusion of forensic pathologists hired by Frank's son Eric in 1994.
My father filed an internal protest demanding an investigation of his friend's and colleague's death, and that was what ultimately triggered the events that killed him.
In January of 1954, under the illusion that he was being immunized from a new retroviral biological warfare agent, he was injected instead with a live virus that he had discovered during his research. He became extremely ill. In his notes, he indicated that he immediately knew. "They killed Frank," he said, "and now they have killed me. The difference is that I will die slowly, very slowly."
He died in 1960, from a form of lymphoma as eleven government labs did morphological workups of his cells.
When I discovered that his death had not been an accident of nature, I was heartbroken. I despaired of life. I sat with a knife a quarter inch into my chest, with blood already trickling down, begging whoever was present at Infinity to reveal the truth of existence.
And in the next moment, I suddenly had no doubt of God or, if you prefer, the Buddha Nature, and I saw things with great clarity.
Adams: Do you believe that we're in denial about the involvement of aliens in the affairs of this planet?
Trombly: The American public has been lied to for so long, they wouldn't be able to recognize the truth if Jesus told them personally.
It's very difficult for the American public to know what is going on. In many ways, we are a nation in denial, and all too often a nation of alcoholics and drug addicts. We are in incredible mass denial.
People see what are referred to as flying saucers and UFOs. Sometimes they are not saucers but triangles. Sometimes they're small, and sometimes they're huge and look like buildings.
It doesn't matter how many people in remote places or in cities see them, or photograph or videotape them. The perceptions are simply shut out.
There are amazing mind-control projects going on. People literally cannot maintain their attention span. More than once I have stood and watched crafts 100 or 200 feet over my head and had people say things like, "Well that's not an airplane," or "Oh, my God, are we actually seeing this?" "Is that real?"
But by the next day, the whole chemistry of denial has set in and those same people say, "Wow, that was a strange airplane, it was going really slow, or really fast, and how did it make that right turn?"
This is what got me started in free energy technology ? though I hate the term free energy, because it's anything but free. Many have paid dearly for its advent. I don't even know what term I like at this point. I use the term Zero Point Fluctuation Technology ? ZP Technology.
I used to have a company called Zero Point Technology. As soon as you put something like that on your shingle, you discover just how unacceptable this concept is to those whose growth stopped so long ago.
People are being bombarded with subliminal messages that tell them that aliens don't exist. Even The "X-Files," which is a joke (thank God they're canceling it), was originally intended, by Chris Carter, to be something more than just random amusement. It was intended to be groundbreaking. But there's government interference. And this is a huge subject. People don't understand that the "other U.S. government" has had contact for decades with cultures that aren't from this planet.
We're like the aboriginal people of New Zealand, or Papua, New Guinea, or any other remote tribe. When they see an airplane, they think that it is a God ? or they at least, they used to. Of course, now they think that it's just people who are more primitive than they are, but who have technology.
We are the same way with "alien" cultures. We are the same way with really clean and advanced electrical technologies that could begin to help us understand just how wonderful and abundant Being -- simply being -- is.
When I got involved in ZP in 1979, I was warned by Buckminster Fuller that if we were successful there'd be hell to pay. If we were actually successful, then it could develop into a real nightmare, because the humans we're dealing with are a species that has been kept in the dark. We've been treated like mushrooms (which are kept in the dark and fed a lot of feces -- there's no nice way of putting this).
The extremes to which these people are willing to go to make your life miserable are phenomenal. They go out of their way to torment those who challenge their utter mediocrity.
Then there are certain people who hang around in the so-called free energy field, who speak at conferences and who have never discovered, engineered, or invented anything in their entire lives that is worthy of note. What they have done is mediocre at best. I won't name them, but they just haven't produced. These are the people who say, "No one has ever bothered me."
These are the same people who -- behind my back and behind the backs of those who have actually produced functional technologies -- say, "Well I've never seen anything that he's produced."
Adams: Can you tell us more about this alien agenda?
Trombly: I know that there's an alien agenda because my father wrote this in his journals. He said he had discovered that the U.S. government had become involved in its implementation. He went further to say that this alien agenda, in his opinion, was contrary to the good of the human species and the planet.
He believed that a sector of the military/industrial complex was involved in a program, basically, to transform our atmosphere, which is benign to our species and other Earth species, into one that is greatly reduced in terms of its oxygen content.
So this is a force which doesn't have good intentions for us. It is a force that would gladly exterminate us. And yet human beings act as agents for this force. The "human" species is exterminating itself, by its own hands.
My father spoke of alien agendas in his most secret thoughts. This was not something he spoke of in public. He would never have given this interview, I'll tell you that much.
Adams: What species is this alien force?
Trombly: I can't say, but I can say that the species that are trying to harm us are a tiny minority of a vast host of alien species. My father knew of a couple. It wasn't just one, even back then. This sounds very far fetched ? I know it sounds nuts. But I decided if I was going to give an interview for this particular publication, I wasn't going to pull any punches.
Adams: Many of the people who read this will share your belief system.
Trombly: Well, this is not about a belief system. I don't like belief systems! This is about reality! We are the ones who are collectively destroying the womb of the Earth in which our species gestates, in which we evolve.
There are real terrorists in Washington, and even, I dare say, in the White House. And we are very rapidly approaching the time when that statement will be considered criminal. The incident we call 9-11 was a mockery. Now, every time someone dials 911 they'll think of the evil demon Osama bin Laden who in fact is someone we helped to create.
Alkhaida was largely financed by the U.S. government. We gave the Taliban 128 million dollars last year to suppress the growth of opium in Afghanistan. Where do you think that money came from? Where do you think it went?
Everyone thinks the 9-11 was caused by Osama bin Laden and his cronies. There's no doubt that some of his money comes from Saudi Arabia, but the fact is that the U.S. government is the primary source of funding for the Taliban. Why? Because Dick Cheney and his cohorts want to build an oil pipeline through Afghanistan.
Adams: What has happened to the free-energy technologies that you've produced?
Trombly: Every single technology that I have either invented or co-produced is no longer in my possession. There's one in Arizona that has supposedly become a national security issue.
A former colleague of mine once went off on his own with a design that he and I had come up with. He built a device that was very successful -- and is now in a can, and he is a shell of his former self.
Forget about whatever technologies I have had a hand in reducing to practice. We have heard from very credible sources that these are nothing compared to the technologies already being produced by certain prime contractors right here in the United States.
Why is it a national security issue? Why is a generator that generates several times more output than input a security issue? Why is it that the American people cannot enjoy what their tax dollars are paying for? Why is it that we have a government that is willing to deny the American people access to the very technologies they themselves are secretly producing?
It's not a joke. Our government has produced technologies, with our tax dollars, that could immediately begin to reverse the damage done by the irresponsible use of fossil fuels, and they are not allowed to be used.
They continue to pollute this atmosphere, and they continue to reduce the amount of metabolically available oxygen. Who could possibly benefit from that? What species do you know of that is actually better off today than, say, fifty years ago?
What is it that we do when we burn these fuels? We make fire. What is fire? Fire is a rapid oxidation process that releases heat. The real destroyers of the equatorial rain forest are forest fires, because of the incredibly poor husbandry. There's nothing good you can say about what's being done to this planet!
There are far too many people in the U.S. government and other national governments who are acting in a way that is completely moronic and self-destructive. It is not a human agenda! This is what I'm trying to get you to see. There is this whole other thing happening.
We are exploited by a corporate structure -- by the "military/industrial complex" Dwight Eisenhower warned us against in his farewell address to the nation. Eisenhower got the term "military/industrial complex" from Mussolini, who was describing Fascism. These are words you don't want to use in our society.
At Project Earth™ we get mail from all over the world, and the one word that keeps coming up since our last so-called presidential election ? about that debacle, that tragedy ? is the word "coup." From the perspective of the vast majority of the human species, it was a coup. They say this in India, Japan, South Korea, France, Holland, Spain ? everywhere. In spite of the fact that we never posted an article on our website that said or even suggested that we had a coup, people write to us and say, "How come the American people don't realize that they just had a coup?"
Then, following on that coup, we have 9-11. Everybody is terrified, but people don't want to talk the way I'm talking now. They think it's self-destructive.
I tell you truly, it is our collective silence that is truly destructive.
The United States of America is a sacred idea. It is a sacred thought-form. What was America to the people who risked and frequently lost their lives to create it? It was the New Jerusalem. The spiritual foundation of the United States of America is an absolute necessity of our spiritual dimension. It was founded on the basis of the absolute need of the human spirit for freedom.
But freedom brings with it great responsibility and demands great intelligence.
We do not want to live in hell, but we are creating hell for ourselves. We are tormenting each other and ourselves. We're doing these things as if we have no choice. We are truly brainwashed.
The real ultimate cult that's going on in America is this one of jingoistic, flag-waving, unquestioning patriotism. We can get ourselves all hyped up on Zoloft, and that still doesn't change the fact that we as a nation have lost an incredible amount of prestige and trust because of what happened in 2000.
No matter how much money we put into the military budget, we will not be able to restore that trust in our own people or in the rest of the world until, through grace or the incarnation of the Divine Process, our democracy is resurrected from its present contrived state. It is a travesty.
When Dick Cheney refuses to turn over documents to investigators, he gives comfort to our enemies. Truly dangerous and deranged people in truly difficult countries like Pakistan cite the actions of our corrupt public officials as justification for their actions.
If we say to the world that we represent Freedom and Democracy, then by God we have an obligation to be Free and Democratic.
In the meantime, the world laughs, because perfectly capable intelligence officers in the United States are oppressed for the sake of short-term political agendas.
The Central Intelligence Agency attempted to warn the White House before September 11. The entire affair was handled with what can only be called incompetence. While three-oletter agencies spent our tax dollars listening to my calls, true terrorists were going to flight. And in spite of over an 18-minute warning crash, a second full-size passenger jet went into the World Trade Center.
Even so, we are all supposed to fall into line and cheer.
Once, in 1986, I was introduced to a man in Toronto, Canada, who turned out to be a major Soviet technology spy. When he offered me a lot of money and a lot of benefits if I would turn over mechanical drawings for an electrical generating technology I had co-invented, I told that agent to go screw himself. I told him I was under a gag order, and that I would not violate that order.
He responded by saying, "What loyalty do you owe to your country? They have done nothing to help you or your work. If you cooperate with us we will appreciate you and take good care of you and your family. Three hundred million people will benefit from your technology. Who cares if a shaft is made in Leningrad or if assembly occurs near Moscow?"
Once again, I told him to go screw himself, to go back to the totalitarian hell that he came from -- and then I got the hell out of his office.
In September of 1986, I turned this man in to the FBI -- and as a consequence, I ended up under investigation myself!
In February of 1987, the counter-intelligence unit of the FBI contacted me. During my second so-called "interview," one of the special agents who interviewed me was Robert Hanson, now known as a famous spy for the former Soviet Union.
Hanson interviewed me about whether or not I was a spy. But he knew I wasn't a spy, because he was!
It's not just the U.S. government that's suppressing all this stuff, it's the whole theater of this species. The "human" species has rarely demonstrated qualities that say that it should be maintained or can be sustained.
This species has never acted in a way that is consistently to its own benefit. For thousands of years, this species has acted in a manner that can only be described as both sadistic and masochistic, and on a planetary scale. It has not acted intelligently.
At the same time, there is no decision to change, because the vast majority of the human species don't even realize that we have a choice to do that. They don't realize that we have the choice [to] live intelligently. They don't even know or what that would entail.
My protests to the "powers above" are consistently related to this central fact: "I know there's a choice, you know there's a choice, but the general population on this planet has no clue that there's a choice. We can choose to live in a completely abundant and pollution-free environment. We can make that choice and have more abundance, and not less abundance. We can stop spending money for fuel. The capital expenditure for fuel could be completely eliminated. That would free up trillions of dollars annually, globally, from the world budget, from the planetary budget."
If you want to know why I got involved in this technology, it's because we have a way to generate almost boundless levels of electrical power without any pollution or fuel, without even the need for solar panels or wind power.
It's ridiculous that I am installing solar panels in my home, when I have spent the last 23 years of my life in the field of ZP Fluctuation Technology research and development and have on more than one occasion successfully demonstrated it along with colleagues who have also learned the same hard lessons that I have.
Adams: Can we still restore this planet?
Trombly: We can if we act with great clarity and great speed. No obstacle could stand in our path.
We could even reclaim the Sahara Desert. It didn't used to be a desert. It was destroyed by people who cut down the forest and overgrazed the grasslands that were once there. Now the same thing is happening in Brazil, Indonesia, China and South East Asia.
These forests and grasslands are like your skin. What does the skin do? It keeps us from becoming dehydrated. When a person gets third-degree burns, one of the leading causes of death is dehydration. The same thing is true of the forests and grasslands.
It's about maintaining that tissue and understanding that it is very vulnerable. These membranes are being taken away.
We can also reclaim the desert that is forming in the northeastern corner of Brazil, where there was rainforest a hundred years ago. The Brazilian desert exists because the Brazilian people won't stop cutting down their own trees. I say this very bluntly. If the Brazilian people want to demonstrate that they have some intelligence, then they'll stop cutting down the rainforest, which is the equatorial life support of our planet.
If the United Nations and if the American government want to demonstrate their intelligence, then they will suggest that we should give credits to these countries for their oxygen production.
We can reclaim the deserts by these new technologies, by taking the water out of the oceans and using it on the desert.
Where you run into the logjam, over and over with all these issues, is the question of energy.
How can we heal the ozone layer? It's going to take a tremendous amount of energy to do that. We have to replenish the oxygen that's not getting into the stratosphere.
One of the fundamental points that I try to make is about chlorine. It is a molecular demon once it gets into the ozone layer. One chlorine ion can interfere with the production of 100,000 molecules of ozone. So we have to eliminate as much free chlorine and bromine as possible.
But even if we entirely eliminated chlorine and bromine production, that would still not be enough to heal the stratospheric ozone layer.
Another significant cause of ozone depletion, one that is often overlooked, is the reduction in the amount of oxygen that should be transported into the stratosphere over the equatorial rainforests. Project Earth™ has been trying to educate people to this fact since the mid-eighties. The oxygen source has literally been cut off by deforestation. But we can heal that by reintroducing a tremendous amount of oxygen up there, and replanting the forest down here, on Earth.
It will take energy. Lots of it.
Adams: Can you describe how your life has been endangered because of your perspectives on free energy?
Trombly: If I had described my life to you since 1980, it would be a long, long story, and it would sound like a bad spy novel.
I've had a number of attempts on my life through really serious poisonings. My wife has had to revive me and give me CPR.
So we've had a whole nightmare component to our life. But we don't live in a nightmare at all. It's quite the opposite.
However, I must say that it has been almost unimaginable at times.
Once, in 1988, I was visited by a couple of scientists at my home in Colorado. One of them was Bob Dratch, a man who has done a lot of work in creating microwave detection equipment, which is widely used by the Department of Defense.
Basically, I was standing in my office, which was a large room, 27 feet long, and Bob Dratch was shaking change in his pocket, to demonstrate that his very sensitive microwave detector could pick up the signal this jingling generated. The signal would appear on the meter and the printout.
I pointed the horn of the device at Dratch to measure the effect. And then, as I pointed the horn away, I kept my finger on the trigger and happened to point it out the window of my office. To our surprise, the alarm went off on the machine! The red light went on, and the meter peaked.
My office was being microwaved!
We walked into my back yard and found the place where the signals were being broadcast. It was right behind my house, in a little forest, right next to an engineering company that is well known for making satellite antennas.
We clipped the cable to the antenna that was broadcasting microwaves at my house, and I called the FCC in Denver and I said told them that this was illegal and I wanted it stopped now. I said, "Stop microwaving me." I already had cancer.
Within three weeks, this engineering company was totally gone. I assume they themselves had something to do with the broadcast, or they wouldn't have left so suddenly.
So dozens of people had to relocate to Kansas, or whereever.
But why were they trying to kill this body? We are perplexed at times by the strange modus operandi of this group.
The world is not going around very well right now, because people aren't loving. When people love, they become geniuses. Intelligence isn't about thinking, it's about feeling. I don't care how many times the force of darkness, which resists love, has attacked you and made you feel separate.
I don't care how difficult anyone's life has been. I guarantee you, I can match it. But suffering is finite, it's limited, it's not eternal. You can transcend suffering through love.
The resurrection we are called to is our resurrection. Once Jesus stood in front of Lazarus' tomb, and commanded, "Lazarus, come out." And we are told that Lazarus came out.
That is similar to what is happening right now. Surrounding this planet, there is a gathering which is inviting the human species into a new dimension. They are saying, "Lazarus come out, come out of your subjective tomb and out of your corruption. Come out of your doubt of God and out of your doubt of Love. In the midst of Infinity and Eternity, We command you."
Now, in this moment, we must come out and ask for help. When we can ask for help, we get it.
People don't understand that you become realized by incarnating love. We live only as expressions of love, in eternity. The only thing that is eternal is Love. Love as the presence of consciousness is eternal and infinite.
Time and space are subsets of eternity and infinity. Space and time are subjective states, and they have nothing to do with limiting the ultimate reality of consciousness, not even a little bit. They have to do with the gnarled subjective states of the contracted world.
Scientists talk about the accelerating expansion of the universe, but it's not that, it's the unremitting transformation of the universe that's happening, the inescapable transformation of the universe.
You don't have a choice about it this time. It isn't the same as it was two thousand years ago. We are in the midst of the time of the resurrection. It involves you and me and everyone on this planet, I don't care who they are.
There will be miracles everywhere. The most powerful thing is love. The whole astrophysical community is now acknowledging this power, but they call it the "dark energy." They give it this Darth Vader quality, because they don't know how to relate to the Light. It is the contraction of form and the denial of the Infinite Divine that causes the appearance of darkness.
Adams: How long has there been a conspiracy to prevent the development of free energy?
Well, if you are referring to the technological side of things, I guess you could say it started with Nikola Tesla. (Although the crucifixion was really an attempt to stop Free energy as well.)
Nikola Tesla was given the vision of infinite electrical power, without fuel, in the 1880s. He demonstrated it in 1886 and 1889, and then throughout the 1890s. He tried to give this gift, but the fossil fuel boys decided he couldn't give it. The fossil fuel boys decided that maybe they could make use of him, so they didn't kill him right away. They killed Tesla in 1943.
One of the detectives approached me in 1981, at a conference. This man told me that Tesla had been murdered. So I guess you could say that it all began right there. When I was a kid in school, nobody knew about Tesla. Tesla was the father of alternating current electricity. Tesla said he was inspired by aliens, beings from other dimensions. He was anathematized because he refused to kowtow; he refused to attend the same temple that the others worshipped in.
Adams: How can we make free energy available to the planet?
Trombly: There is no such thing as free energy without enlightenment and liberation. The technologies point to free energy. We are the technology. We are the free energy.
Great yogis like Sri Babaji demonstrate this. Yogananda talked about him. He was the physical demonstration of free energy. He was the physical demonstration of what the Tibetans called the Rainbow Body. He was transparent and transfigured in God realization, the realization of the Buddha Nature.
There are alien cultures and cultures in other universes who happen to be attentive to the events on this planet because this is one of the last archetypal moments. This will not continue anymore. This entire kind of universe is obsolete and will not occur again, because it would be masochism and sadism to allow it to be perpetuated.
There's a transformation that is occurring. It is about the liberation of all the energy that has been bound up in all of these worlds that are subject to corruption. That is the real physics. This is what is really important.
In the meantime, by understanding that this is true, we can tap into a field that we call Zero Point Vacuum Fluctuation or the quantum ether, and we can generate electrical power. Electrical power exists in complete abundance, without any capital cost for fuel.
Solar technology is so very expensive. We have 108 solar panels in our two facilities on Maui and it takes up a great deal of space. I would love to have ZP Technology here, but the fact of the matter is, if I had that working right now, this place would become a target.
The other side of this story is always the same thing. Just when Light appears on this planet, the subjective forces of darkness manifest with great tenacity. This government was overthrown and nobody knows anything about it. People are silent about it.
On the cover of Newsweek, on September 11, was an article about the secret vote that made Bush president. The article was about a conspiracy in the Supreme Court. Newsweek at that time was willing to challenge the Supreme Court. The Executive Branch of the United States government was about to fall, because it was going to be exposed.
But then the planes hit the World Trade Center.
If Al Gore had been elected, I know the man well enough to know that we would have been in a different economy after four years. We would've begun to implement these technologies.
The United States government has, right now, the technology to eliminate the energy crisis. This consoling gesture that George Bush made the other day, about developing hydrogen fuel-cell technology, is just a carrot that he's dangling before the American people.
Now there are military people who have come forward and are talking about the presence of aliens and alien technology on this planet. They are even talking about the fact that we are making our own flying saucers. This Disclosure Project is extremely important for people to know about (see Secrets from the Stars elsewhere in this issue).
We could be having the greatest economic boom in the history of history. We could actually do that. The technology exists. As early as the 1970s, Henry Kissinger, George Bush, Richard Nixon-- all kinds of these guys -- knew about this physics. But the downside is that we are on the brink of oblivion.
Parents are paying all this money to educate their children into the lie of physics instead of the truth of physics. Meanwhile, they are taking Prozac. We have legalized the anesthetization of our species. Depression is appropriate.
Adams: What is the purpose of your organization, Project Earth™.
Trombly: The original foundation of Project Earth™ was to reveal to the human species the actual condition of our planet. We're not being told the truth about it. For the most part, the scientific community doesn't know the truth and has been so disempowered by their so-called education that they've lost vision.
Vision is the only thing that will save us. You have to be able to see where you're going.
The agreement that I made with the Divine is one that Bucky and I talked about. We would never just illuminate the problem, we would always offer a solution. If we talked about an energy crisis, we would talk about only it in the context of the fact that there is no energy crisis.
Electrical power is already abundantly available, pollution free. We like electricity. We can power our cars and flying saucers with infinite electrical power. We could have so much fun that living on earth wouldn't be a drag, but would be really great.
Your eyes would be so open that you would walk out the door and you wouldn't see the smog in Los Angeles, but you'd see the clear, sacred air.
Project Earth™ is not just about communicating the problems. It's about the transformation of humanity.
Adam Trombly, Director of Project Earth™, is an internationally acknowledged expert in the fields of Physics, Atmospheric Dynamics, Geophysics, Rotating and Resonating Electromagnetic Systems, and Environmental Global Modeling.
Taking the advice of his friend and mentor R. Buckminster Fuller, Adam has maintained a "synergistic, global view" within a multi-disciplinary scientific background. From this perspective, Adam offers unique insights into the changes humankind has effected on our environment, and the adjustments our future requires of us.
For further information about Project Earth™, please visit ProjectEarth.com.
Trombly and Celeste Adams spoke on 21 January, 2002.
Closed Path Homopolar Machine
Inventors: Adam D. Trombly & Douglas Kahn
Acme Energy Company: 25 Mitchell Blvd, San Rafael,CA 94903
International Patent Application Number: PCT/US81/01588
International Patent Classification: H02K 31/00, 39/00
International Publication Number: WO 82/02126
International Publication Date: 24 June 1982
Abstract -- A co-rotating homopolar generator has a rotor (12) comprising a disk conductor (30) and co-rotating coaxial electromagnets (32a and 32b) on either side, and achieves improved operation by utilizing a low reluctance magnetic return path for the magnetic flux that passes through the disk conductor (30). The low reluctance path permits the electromagnets (32a and 32b) to produce a high field with a relatively low value of coil excitation current. Thus overheating is avoided and the full potential of the homopolar generator is achieved. The low reluctance magnetic return path (220) is preferably provided by a relatively high permeability co-rotating enclosure (having enclosure halves 37a and 37b) of sufficient radial and axial dimensions to enclose the electromagnets and disk conductor of the rotor. The disk conductor (30) is preferably constructed from a high permeability, low resistivity material such as iron, and can indeed be integral with the electromagnet cores (35a and 35b).
Field of the Invention:
The present invention relates generally to electric generation, and more particularly to a homopolar machine having high efficiency.
Background of the Invention:
Electrical generation typically involves the conversion of mechanical work to electrical energy. In these energy conscious times, it is most important to achieve as high a conversion efficiency as possible.
It is well known that if a conducting disk is rotated about its axis in the field of a fixed magnet such that the magnetic flux lines intersect the plane of the disk, a voltage is induced between radially distinct portions of the disk. Such a device is known as a homopolar generator. Although less well known, it is also known that if the magnet is fastened to the disk, and the whole assembly co-rotated, a voltage is also induced between radially distinct portions of the disk. M. J. Crookes, et al., in a recent article in the American Journal of Physics 46 (7): 729-731 (1978), note with amusement that while the co-rotating type of homopolar generator seemed to the authors to be a brilliant new invention, it was "belatedly discovered that Faraday got there first". According to the published results of an experiment performed by Michael Faraday in 1832, "a copper disk was cemented upon the end of a cylinder magnet, with paper intervening; the magnet and disk were rotated together and collectors (attached to the galvanometer) brought in contact with the circumference and the central part of the copper plate. The galvanometer needle moved as in former cases, and the direction of motion was the same as that which would have resulted, if the copper only had revolved, and the magnet had been fixed. Neither was there any apparent difference in the quantity of deflection. Hence, rotating the magnet causes no difference in the results; for a rotary and a stationary magnet produces the same effect upon the moving copper".
Bruce E. DePalma, in an article in Energy Unlimited 5: 16-23 (1980), makes the further statement that unlike a conventional generator which resists rotation when current is drawn, a homopolar generator having the magnet and disk conductor rigidly coupled to one another operates in a manner free of such rotational drag. More particularly, it is suggested that due to the fact that the torque is absorbed in the assembly, conversion efficiency beyond that normally achievable should be possible. To date, there have been attempts to build co-rotating homopolar generators, but the devices appear to have been troubled by overheating and other engineering difficulties that have tended to mask the potentially high efficiency.
Summary of the Invention:
The present invention provides a co-rotating homopolar generator that avoids the heating problems of prior machines and renders possible and convenient the generation of electricity at extremely high efficiency. The generator has a rotor comprising a disk conductor and co-rotating coaxial electromagnets on either side. The present invention achieves the improved operation by providing a low reluctance magnetic return path for the magnetic flux that passes through the disk conductor.
The low reluctance path permits the electromagnets to produce a high field (limited to 2.2 tesla by the saturation of iron) with a relatively low value of coil excitation current. Thus overheating is avoided and the full potential of the homopolar generator is achieved.
In the preferred embodiment, the low reluctance magnetic return path is provided by a relatively high permeability co-rotating enclosure (designated a "flux return enclosure") of sufficient radial and axial dimensions to enclose the magnets and disk conductor of the rotor. Additionally, the disk conductor itself is preferably constructed from a high permeability, low resistivity material such as iron, and can indeed be integral with the electromagnet cores.
Output power is drawn between the periphery of the disk conductor (within the flux return enclosure) and the rotor shaft through fixed disk and shaft brushes. The disk brush protrudes through an annular slot in the flux return enclosure, and is geometrically configured so as not to add a large amount of reluctance to the flux return path. To this end, the disk brush is formed with a relatively thin web portion that passes through the enclosure gap. The web portion still has sufficient thickness so that the mechanical strength o the brush is not compromised. Moreover, the web portion has sufficient thickness, and hence conductance, that the saving in magnet power is not offset by excessive ohmic heating in the web portion.
For a further understanding of the nature and advantages of the present invention, reference should be made to the remaining portion of the specification and to the attached drawings.
Brief Description of the Drawings:
Figure 1 is a sectional isometric view of a homopolar machine according to the present invention;
Figure 2 is an electrical/mechanical schematic view of the homopolar generator;
Figure 3 is a sectioned oblique view of the rotor and shaft;
Figure 4A is an isometric view showing the construction of the disk brush
Figure 4B is a fragmentary enlarged view showing a portion of the disk brush;
Figure 5A and Figure 5B are exploded isometric views of the shaft brushes;
Figure 5C is an isometric view of the magnet brush;
Figure 6 is a sectioned isometric view of the magnet brush;
Figure 7 is a sectioned oblique side view showing the brushes, bearings, and casing, with the rotor shown in phantom; and
Figure 8 is a sectioned isometric view of the shaft end seal.
Detailed Description of the Drawings:
Figure 1 is a sectioned isometric view showing a homopolar generator according to the present invention. Figure 2 is an electrical and mechanical schematic of the generator system incorporating generator 10. Generator 10 comprises a rotor 12 mounted to a shaft 15 journaled in bearing assemblies 17 and 18 for rotation within a casing 20. The casing maintains rotor 12 within a controlled atmosphere (slightly pressurized nitrogen). One end of shaft 15 protrudes outside casing 20 through a shaft seal assembly 21 and is provided a drive sheave 22 to communicate mechanical energy from a drive motor 25 of any conventional desired type. A shaft end bearing 27 takes up radial loading on drive sheave 22 due to the coupling with motor 25.
Broadly, rotor 12 comprises a central disk conductor portion 30, flanking electromagnet coils 32a and 32b with respective associated iron core portions 35a and 35b, and a flux return enclosure having enclosure halves 37a and 37b. When high currents are involved, the disk may more closely resemble a cylinder. However, the term "disk" will still be used for the conductor that corresponds to the disk of Faraday's experimental device. Electromagnet coils 32a and 32b are series connected between shaft 15 and an electrically isolated shaft portion 40. Excitation current is provided by a magnet excitation power supply 42 which is coupled between a magnet brush 45 which rubs on electrically isolated shaft portion 40, and a pair of parallel connected shaft brushes 47 and 48. An outer portion of disk conductor 35 engages a disk brush 5 and output power is drawn between disk brush 50 and shaft brushes 47 and 48. As will be described more fully below, generator 10 has the capability of operating at extremely high efficiency.
Rotor & Shaft:
Referring to the sectioned oblique view of Figure 3, the detailed construction of rotor 12 and shaft 15 may be seen. While there is no particular significance to absolute dimensions, the description that follows will be in terms of an illustrative generator whose rotor has an outer dimension of 14.0 inches and an axial length of 9.25 inches, with the rotor being being carried on a shaft of diameter 2.0 inches. Where practical, suitable proportions will be maintained in isometric and oblique views so that other dimensions may be ascertained from the drawings. Disk conductor portion 30 and electromagnet core portions 35a and 35b are constructed of high permeability, low resistivity material such as iron, and may be integrally formed as a single iron rotor core, designated 55. Rotor core 55 is brazed to shaft 15 which is preferably made of a copper-beryllium alloy. A suitable shaft material may be obtained from Brush Wellman Company under the name of Brush 3 Alloy. This is an alloy characterized by a high electrical conductivity (50% of copper standard) and a high module of elasticity. A circumferentially extending copper contact 57 is brazed to the outer surface of rotor core 55 at the axial midpoint thereof and contacts disk brush as will be described below.
Electromagnet coils 32a and 32b are wound with epoxy-impregnated wire which may be no. 12 size in the illustrative embodiment. Iron annuli 60a and 60b are bolted to opposite ends of rotor core 55 to define therewith a spool which axially confines the coils. The series connection between isolated shaft portion 40 and shaft 15 is defined by first, second, and third magnet conductors 62, 62, and 64. First magnet conductor 62 runs from shaft portion 40 along the axis of shaft 15, and then radially outward to coil 32b. Second magnet conductor 63 runs between coils32a and 32b, passing through brush contact 57. Third magnet conductor passes radially outward from coil 32a to shaft 15. Electromagnet coils 32a and 32b are provided with respective high tensile strength wrappings 65a and 65b, preferably fiberglass-epoxy tape, to prevent centrifugal destruction of the coils.
The flux return enclosure provides a low reluctance magnetic path for the magnetic flux lines passing through rotor core 55 and should therefore be made of relatively high permeability material. For example, enclosure halves 37a and 37b may be constructed of medium-high permeability, high tensile strength, forged silicon steel. Enclosure halves 37a and 37b are bolted to rotor core 55, and together define a cylindrical enclosure within which are located electromagnet coils 32a and 32b, rotor core 55, rotor core 55, copper brush contact 57, and magnet coil wrappings 65a and 65b. Facing portions of enclosure halves 37a and 37b are spaced apart to define a circumferentially extending slot 66 that permits disk brush 50 to engage copper contact 57. Slot 66 is approximately 9/32-inch thick in the region between enclosure halves 37a and 37b, but broadens to approximately 1.0 inch thick in the region between electromagnet coils 32a and 32b. Enclosure halves 37a and 37b are provided with respective high tensile strength wrappings 67a and 67b.
As stated above, shaft 15 is characterized by a 2-inch diameter in the rotor region. Axially away from rotor 12, shaft 15 is of lesser diameter, being reduced to 45 millimeters in the region of bearing assemblies 15 and 17. Proceeding axially away from rotor 12 in a first direction toward isolated shaft portion 40, shaft 15 is formed with radially relieved portions 68 and 69 to define therebetween a first annular collar 70 for engagement with shaft brush 47. Proceeding axially in the other direction, shaft 15 is formed with an annular groove 71 spaced from the shaft end to define a second annular collar 72 for engagement with shaft brush 48.
Figure 4A is an isometric view showing the construction of disk brush 50. Disk brush 50 comprises symmetrical halves 75a and 75b which, when bolted together in coplanar relationship, completely encircle rotor 12. Disk brush half 75b is shown only in phantom. Since disk brush halves 75a and 75b are similarly constructed, brush half 75a only will be described. Brush half 75a is in the form of a 1-inch thick rigid copper plate with a semicircular opening 77 along an edge thereof, opening 77 being adapted to cooperate with a similar opening in brush half 75b to form a circular aperture. A semi-annular web portion 80 of reduced thickness surrounds opening 77 in a spaced concentric relation thereto, and defines an inner brush portion 82 between opening 77 and web portion 80. Web portion 80 is approximately 1/4-inch thick while inner brush portion 82 is approximately 13/16-inch thick. Web portion 80 has a radial extent that is only slightly greater than the radial extent of the facing portions of flux return enclosure halves 37a and 37b and their associated wrappings 72a and 72b. At the same time, web portion 80 is sized to fit within slot 66 of rotor 12 with a small clearance (for example 1/64-inch on either side). Inner brush portion 82 is sized to fit within the broadened slot portion between electromagnet coils 32a and 32b, and engages brush contact 57. Axial clearances are somewhat broader than those surrounding web portion 80. A clearance of 3/32-inch on either side is suitable.
The outside dimensions of disk brush halves 75a and 75b are not critical, nor are the particular outside configurations. However, it is important that the brush halves have portions that extend sufficiently beyond the outside surface of rotor 12 to permit proper mechanical support with respect to casing 20. A height of 18 inches and a width of 20.5 inches (total brush width of 21 inches) is suitable.
As will be described below, generator 10 is operated under conditions of very high current so that brush resistance must be minimized. This is accomplished by wetting the brush contact areas with liquid metal, and providing a structure to hold the liquid metal in place. To this end, inner brush portion 82 carries a fixed contact assembly 85, which may be seen with reference to the fragmentary oblique sectional view of Figure 4B. More particularly, inner brush portion is formed with an inwardly opening recess 87 which broadens beneath the surface to define opposing lips 90 and 91 spaced to receive copper contact 57 therebetween. Lips 90 and 91 confine mixed contact assembly 85 which comprises a strip of ground braid material 92 (1/2-inch x 1/16-inch cross-section is suitable) and a copper strap 95 that is crimped around it to provide structural integrity. Strap 95 surrounds ground braid strip 92 to the same extent as lips 90 and 91, so that the inwardly facing portion between the lips is exposed ground braid material which engages contact 57. In use, ground braid strip 92 is wetted with a liquid metal such as a sodium/potassium eutectic (NaK-78). Operation is optimum with a small and precisely controlled clearance (e.g., 0.002 inches) between braid strip 92 and contact 57. This may be achieved by a break-in run that is carried out prior to wetting braid strip 92 with the liquid metal. The purpose of braid strip 92 is to hold the liquid metal in place and to alter its velocity characteristics so that it does not experience dynamic turbulent flow phenomena or migrate away from the surface of brush contact 57. While the use of ground braid material is a useful expedient, fixed contact assembly may utilize any construction that provides a finely convoluted surface. For example, screen material could be used.
Figure 5A and Figure 5B are exploded isometric views of shaft brushes 47 and 48. Turning first to Figure 5A, shaft brush 47 is of two-piece construction including an elongated rectangular bar member 100 (1-inch x 4-inch cross-section) and an abutting short member 102, members 100 and 102 having respective semicircular openings 105 and 107 along facing, abutting edges thereof. Thus, when brush members 100 and 102 are bolted together, as for example by bolts 110, they define a circular bore of a diameter corresponding to that of radially relieved shaft portions 68 and 69. The surface of the circular bore is recessed and houses a contact assembly 112 (which may comprise eutectic wetted braid) in the same manner as inner brush portion 82 houses contact assembly 85. If braid material is used, a 3/4-inch x 1/16-inch cross-section is suitable. Contact assembly 112 engages annular collar 70 to conduct current between shaft 15 and shaft brush 47. The outside dimensions of brush members 100 and 102 are not critical, but brush member 100 is preferably of sufficient length to extend outside casing 20.
Turning next to Figure 5B, shaft brush 48 includes cooperating brush members 120 and 125 which are generally the same as brush members 100 and 105 with the exception tht the semicircular bores do not extend all the way through, but rather terminate within the brush members. A contact assembly 127 engages annular collar 72.
Figure 5C is an isometric view of one of two identical support elements 130 for shaft brushes 47 and 48. Support element 130 is formed of insulative material and provides an electrically insulated mounting of the shaft brushes to housing 20. Support element 130 includes a rectangular channel section 131 for receiving and supporting a respective shaft brush and flange section 132 for mounting to housing 20.
Figure 6 is an isometric sectional view illustrating the construction of isolated shaft portion 40 and magnet brush 45. Magnet brush 45 is a cylindrical element of sintered copper-graphite or equivalent material. As described above, conductor 62 runs in an axial bore along shaft 15. The end of shaft 15 is formed with a cylindrical recess into which is epoxied an undersized metal cylinder 135 which is bored to receive an uninsulated metal cylinder 135 which is bored to receive an uninsulated end of magnet conductor 62. Isolated shaft portion 40 is a circular plate of the same diameter as the adjacent portion of shaft 15, an is soldered to cylinder 135 to form a mechanical and electrical coupling thereto.
Figure 7 is a side oblique view, sectioned vertically along the axis of rotor 12, with the shaft and rotor shown only in phantom. Figure 1 and Figure 7, taken together, show the construction of housing 20, bearing assemblies 17 and 18, and the mechanical support of the disk, shaft and magnet brushes. Housing 20 comprises a central rotor chamber 150 and axially outboard shaft brush chambers 152 and 153. Rotor chamber 150 includes a pair of end walls 155a and 155b, and pair of side panels 157a and 157b. Shaft brush chamber 152 includes a pair of side walls 160a and 160b, and an end panel 162, while shaft brush chamber 153 includes a pair of side walls 165a and 1665b, and an end panel 167. housing 20 further comprises a floor 170 and a roof 172. End walls 155a and 155b, side walls 160a and 160b, side walls 165a and 165b and floor 170 are preferably 1/2--inch stainless steel plate and are welded together to provide a rigid load-bearing assembly. Side panels 157a and 157b, end panels162 and 167 and roof 172 are of lighter material such as 1/8-inch stainless steel, and are bolted in place so as to be removable. Bolted connections are gasketed, using, for example, 1/8-inch thick cloth-impregnated butyl rubber gasketing material, chosen for its minimal outgassing characteristics. Disk brush halves 75a and 75b are supported between a lower brush support channel 175 and an upper brush support channel 177, both of which are fabricated from a fiber reinforced thermosetting plastic material. Lower brush support channel 177 is bolted to appropriate structural angle members, not shown. Shaft and bearing 27 is mounted to a housing extension 178 which carries a magnet brush support bracket 179. Magnet brush 45 is held in a cylindrical bore within an insulating brush support block 180, and is kept in contact with isolated shaft portion 40 by a spring 181.
Bearing assemblies 17 and 18 are mounted into, and supported by respective end walls 155a and 155b. Since the bearing assemblies are generally identical, only one will be described. Bearing assembly 17 includes a lightly preloaded duplex pair of angular contact ball bearings 180a and 180b mounted within a rectangular housing having a mounting flange 185 on three sides thereof. Suitable bearings may be obtained from Fafnir Company under the designation 2MM209 WI CR DUL. These are very high precision grade (ABEC-7) bearings characterized by a 1.7717-inch bore, a 3.3465-inch outer diameter, and a 1.4960-inch width. These bearings are able to run at 8000 rpm in grease under the loading imposed by rotor 12 and shaft 15. The bearings are held in place by opposed retaining plates 187a and 187b and a retaining collar 190. Shaft end bearing 27 may be a prehoused two-bolt flanged unit such as that obtainable from SKF under the designation FYTP-100. This is a bearing having a 1.000 inch bore and capable of operation at 8700 rpm in grease. Such a bearing has labyrinth seals which do not actually touch, thus avoiding problems of excessive wear and heating at high speeds.
Figure 8 is a partially cut away isometric view showing details of shaft seal assembly 21 which maintains a seal during operation when casing 20 is filled with slightly pressurized nitrogen. Shaft seal assembly 21 comprises an elastomeric seal 195 held in place within a shaft seal housing 196 by a retaining plate 197. A suitable elastomeric seal may be obtained from Johns-Mansville Company under the designation 10058LUP, which signifies a seal facbricated from buna-N material and characterized by a 2.0000-inch outer diameter, a 1.2500-inch bore, and a 0.3750-inch width. At the high angular velocity of operation, the elastomeric seal would rapidly wear away portions of the beryllium-copper material of shaft 15. Accordingly, shaft 15 is provided with a stainless sleeve 198, such as that obtainable from Chicago Rawhide under the designation 99125 Speedi-Sleeve. This is a sleeve characterized by a 1.250-inch bore, and a 0.010-inch wall thickness with a special outer finish designed expressly for efficient sealing action.
However, in order to fill housing 20 with pressurized nitrogen, the housing must first be evacuated and purged. Elastomeric seal 195 is incapable of maintaining a vacuum, so an o-ring sealing mechanism utilizing an axially movable gland 202 is provided. Moving gland 202, shown in its sealing position, has a frustoconical bore 205 adapted to engage a corresponding frustoconical portion 205 of shaft 15 (see also Figure 3). Movable gland 202 is grooved within its frustoconical bore to carry a first o-ring 210 for sealing to shaft 15, and is grooved on its face to carry a second o-ring 212 for sealing to shaft seal housing 197. After housing 20 is filled with nitrogen, gland 202 is moved away from shaft seal housing 197 so that o-ring 210 does not engage the shaft during operation.
Having described the structure of the present invention, suitable operating parameters may be set forth by way of example. By way of background, for a machine of the type described, it is readily shown that the voltage, V, generated between the shaft and the outer circumference of the rotor core is given by the following equation:
V = B w (r22 - r12) / 2 (in mks units)
Where B is the magnetic field strength, w is the angular velocity of the rotor, r2 is the motor core radius, and r1 is the shaft radius. For rotation at 7200 rpm (754 radians per second), a 1-inch radius shaft, a 3-inch radius rotor core, and a magnetic field of 1.5 tesla, the voltage may be shown to be equal to approximately 2.9 volts. In order to render the pattern of output current relatively symmetrical within the device, it is preferred to couple the load to both disk brush halves and both shaft brushes. If two similar loads are used, one may be coupled between disk brush half 75a and shaft brush 48 (which protrude through the casing on the same side) and the other between disk brush half 75b and shaft brush 47.
Due to the brush design, the total internal resistance of the generator is in the neighborhood of 6-10 micro-ohms. Assuming that the machine is capable of dissipating no more than 2.25 kilowatts of internal heating, the maximum test load current is about 15 kiloamperes. At this current, the power output is 43.7 kiloamperes. However, the anticipated load current permissible for continuous operation may be more realistically in the neighborhood of as low as 8 kiloamperes, which corresponds to a power output of 23.3 kilowatts. As stated above, motor 25 may be any suitable prime move, and for the operating conditions described herein, should be capable of developing approximately 15 horsepower.
In view of the present invention and the operation of generator 10, the advantages of the configuration of rotor 12 may be understood. In particular, it will be noted that enclosure halves 37a and 37b cooperate with rotor core 55 to provide a low reluctance magnetic circuit. That is, energization of coils 32a and 32b causes magnet flux lines, denoted schematically by loops 220 in Figure 3, that are contained within a low reluctance magnet circuit comprising a substantially closed path of high permeability material. The only high reluctance portion is slot 66 which is kept as narrow as possible consistent with web portion 80 of brush halves 75a and 75b having sufficient mechanical strength and electrical conductance. With this configuration, a total excitation input power of approximately 150 watts is sufficient to produce a 1.5 tesla field in portion 30 of rotor core 55. The excessive consumption of power in producing a high magnetic field level is eliminated, making possible sustained operation at high levels of magnetic induction (and therefore of output voltage).
In summary, it can be seen that a generator according to the present invention is characterized by high efficiency and low magnet power requirements, achieved by the use of a rotor configuration having a low reluctance path. While the above provides a full and complete disclosure of the preferred embodiments of the invention, various modifications, alternate constructions, and equivalents may be employed without departing from the true spirit and scope of the invention. For example, housing 20 could be constructed with a cylindrical configuration to minimize the internal volume. Moreover, while a brush geometry that encircles the rotor and shaft is desirable, other configurations could be used. Therefore, the above description and illustration should not be construed as limiting the scope of the invention which is defined by the appended claims.
Claims [ Not included here ]
Figure 1: Sectioned Isometric View of Homopolar Generator
10 = Homopolar Generator; 12 = Rotor; 15 = Shaft; 17, 18 = Bearing Assemblies; 20 = Casing; 21 = Shaft Seal Assembly; 22 = Sheave Drive; 25 = Drive Motor; 27 = Shaft End bearing; 30 = Central Disk Conductor; 32A, 32B = Electromagnet Coils; 37A, 37B = Flux return Enclosure; 40 = Electrically Isolated Shaft portion; 42 = magnet Excitation Power Supply; 45 = Magnet Brush; 47, 47 = Shaft Brushes; 50 = Disk Brush
Figure 2: Eelctrical/Mechanical Schematic View of the Homopolar Generator
Figure 3: Sectioned Oblique View of the Rotor & Shaft
Figure 4A: Isometric View showing the construction of the Disk Brush
Figure 4B: Fragmetary Enlarged View showing a portion of the Disk Brush
Figure 5A: Exploded Isometric View of the Shaft Brushes
Figure 5B: Exploded Isometric View of the Shaft Brushes
Figure 5C: Isometric View of a Shaft Brush Support
Figure 6: Sectioned Isometric View of the Magnet Brush
Figure 7: Sectioned Oblique View showing the Brushes, Bearings, & Casing, with the Rotor shown in phantom
Figure 8: Sectioned Isometric View of the Shaft End Seal
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